Vitamin B6 occurs in three forms–pyridoxine, pyridoxamine, and pyridoxal. B6 is absorbed in the large intestine. The muscle stores approximately 75 80 % of the vitamin while the live stores about 5 10 %.

B6 is required for transaminations, decarboxylations, dehydratases, side-chain cleavage reactions, and ammonia release. Its aldehyde class functions as a Schiff base to react with the amino groups of amino acids. It essentially acts to shuttle nitrogen between compounds.

Functions- The 3 forms of B6 can all be turned in to the coenzyme PLP that aids in transamination & protein metabolism. PLP is vital for glycogen degradation; in addition, it helps with the formation of the neurotransmitter, serotonin, the nonprotein part of hemoglobin (heme), nucleic acids, and lecithin. Vitamin B6 is essential for the metabolic process of tryptophan to niacin.

General Reactions:

· Transaminations These responses are necessary to recycle as well as reuse nitrogen in the entire body. They are the first stage in amino acid catabolism and also the last stage in the synthesis of nonessential amino acids. Example: a-ketoglutarate + asparate glutamate + oxaloacetate

· Serine/ Threonine Deamination (Dehydratases) This reaction supplies the generation of the a keto acids of serine as well as threonine through oxidative removal of N as ammonia Example: Serine a-keto-serine + NH4+

· Decarboxylation These reactions often occur on the neuroactive amines of GABA., histamine, tyramine, and seratonin They also are critical in porphyrin synthesis, intermediates within the synthesis of sphingomyelin, lecithin and taurine, and for the description and desulfuration of cysteine.

· Glycogen Phosphorylase 50 % of all B6 inside the body is certain to glycogen phosphorylase but the value is unknown. The reaction is crucial for recycling of folate and is as follows:

Serine glycine + 5,10-methylene-THF

Deficiency Deficiencies of vitamin B6 are pretty uncommon. Individuals with a diet deficient in vitamin B6 will 1st show signs of weakness, nervousness, insomnia, irritability, and hydrated skin lesions. More advanced symptoms include growth failure, impaired motor function, hypochromic microcytic anemia, smooth tongue, along with convulsions.

meal service delivery and other psychological problems could be attributed to a decrease in amino acid-based neurotransmitters (serotonin, GABA, tyramine, epinephrine). You see a growth in urea excretion due to a decrease synthesis of nonessential amino acids. The nitrogen from these amino acids is not recycled by transamination and instead is excreted and also lost. You see an increase in urinary excretion particularly in the following amino acids: metabolites of glycine, tryptophan, & methionine. The hypochromic microcytic anemia is mainly because that there is a reduced synthesis of the B6 dependent porphyrin ring of hemoglobin.

Individuals who are at most risk would be the elderly with substandard vitamin intake, hemodialysis patients, alcoholics, and all those that are on drug therapy. Overall, individuals with a high metabolic stress.

Sources Foods richest in vitamin B6 include:

o whole grains o legumes o nuts o navy beans o walnuts o meat (sirloin plus chicken) o fish (salmon and shellfish) o bananas as well as apples o broccoli and spinach

Therapeutics Vitamin B6 might provide healing advantages because of the second syndromes: carpal tunnel syndrome, glucose intolerance, sideroblastic anemia, neurologic problems, hyperoxaluria, convulsive seizures, monosodium glutarate (MSG) intolerance, premenstral syndrome (pms) and Immune function. Moreover, vitamin B6 may help to lower homocysteine levels and hence the risk of getting cardiovascular disease.

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